This Cocojams page contains video examples of historically Black Greek lettered organizations fraternity & sorority step shows and/or strolls (party walks). This page also features stepping performances by other fraternities, sororities, and other organizations.
The information & material on this page is posted for folkloric, cultural, and aesthetic purposes.
Editor: Azizi Powell
Latest Update: June 8, 2014
Visit these related Cocojams.com pages:
Also, click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com for various posts on Black fraternities and sororities steppin and/or chants including this one:
Cane Performances In Black Fraternities & Sororities (Videos)
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT STEPPIN (STEPPING) [Revised September 22, 2013]
[Some portions of this post cites information gleaned from the seminal book on Black Greek organization stepping, Elizabeth Fine's 2003 book Soulstepping African American Step Shows. My thanks to Ms. Fine for her research & editing of that book.]
Steppin, foot stomping, and stomp & shake cheerleading are three closely related but distinct movement performance arts. Each of these performance art forms originated among African Americans.
Steppin (Stepping) is a syncopated, choreographed performance art that occurs at competitive "step shows" and other venues. The performance art of steppin originated among historically Black (African American) university based Greek lettered fraternities & sororities. Steppin (stepping) is the oldest of these performance arts. Click http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A34OD4eA17o for a video demonstration of 19th century Buck dances, Wing dances, and Jigs. Duke University professor Thomas F. DeFrantz describes Buck dances as those which were very percussive, and weighted down into the foot. It seems clear from that description & his demonstration that Buck dances is one of the sources of Steppin.
in her book Soul Stepping Elizabeth Fine indicates that "it's dfficult to find written support for the existence of stepping before 1924, when the first yearbook and newspaper were published in 1924." Fine indicates that "The earliest written reference to what might be stepping appears in the 24 November 1925 [Howard University] student newspaper The Hilltop." That article entitled "Hell-Week" describes pledges of Omega Psi Phi and Kappa Alpha Psi fraternites "dancing about the campus..." (p.15).
Other 1920s and 1930s photographs and written documentation from Howard University refers to probates [pledges] "marching in line" across campus, wearing the same color and style outfits and singing or chanting. These references to and photographs of "marching in line", and "marching in parade" while singing and chanting continue through to the late 1950s. Indeed, those experiences of "marching in line" probably is the source for the term "being on line" being the reference to this day for the process prospective members go through when they are joining a historically Black Greek letter organization.
On p. 18 of her book, Elizabeth Fine cites photographs of the 1958 edition of Howard University's yearbook The Bison*. In one of those photographs Delta Sigma Theta sorority probates are shown "fac[ing] each other in two lines as each leans toward the woman across from her and sings. The caption reads "sing girls". Greek singing events also contributed to the musical and verbal components of stepping."** Girls standing in two lines facing each other while singing may also have been borrowed from the line formations used in recreational singing games. Click http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2YodFqZ7nQ for examples of this formation in the 1967 film "Pizza Pizza Daddy O" which documents Los Angeles, California Black girls' performing various line and circle singing games.
Elizabeth Fine writes "In contrast to the linear patterns in photographs in previous decades, the circle was the most commonly photographed pattern in both singing and stepping rituals in the 1960s." [p. 18]. A number of the Black Greek lettered organizations photographs in the Bison from the 1960s show counterclockwise circular movment.
Two of the photographs that Fine mentions show AKA sorors standing and moving in a counterclockwise circle with captions that read "Singing On Campus" and "Hipp-O-Hi-O". [p, 18]. I find that interesting on a personal note as I pledged Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority in 1966, and one of the two songs that I can remember learning was entitled "Hiro Hip-O Ray". I'm not sure if that's the same song as "Hipp-O-Hi-O". I recall that in 1966 other "ivies" and I who were pledging Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority (Gamma Zeta chapter, New Jersey) dressed up in pink & green dresses and did a vertical line dance while we chanted in front of AKA sorors. However, I can't remember if that routine was called "steppin'." I thought we were just doing a dance. I became an inactive member of that sorority fairly quickly, and I can't recall attending any step shows or hearing about any step shows until the 1990s. The words that I remember for that both of the pledge song/chants that I learned in 1966 are given below.
Elizabeth Fine wrote that "The first photographs of a formalized indoor stepping program called "Greek Weekend" appeared in the 1965 Bison [p.19]. Fine also writes that the terms that were used in 1964 for stepping were "demonstrate" and "demonstrating". [p. 27]. Although I don't remember those terms being used in that context, the photographs of men or women marching across campus singing or chanting reminds me of the way that civil rights demonstrators during that time also chanted or sang while marching. Fine mentions the use of other synonyms for stepping" such as "shout'n foot stompn' tribalism" , "a war dance", and "marches" in a 1976 letter by Kujaliwa Hukumu.*** And Fine mentions that "by 1976 the first competitive Greek show was scheduled for homecoming week" [at Howard University] [p.31]. And by at least 1983, this movement art form was referred to as "step". p. 32] .
Each fraternity & sorority, including those which belong to The National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC), a collaborative organization of nine historically African American, international Greek lettered fraternities and sororities NPHC, has its own distinctive way of stepping. Some organizations usually step with props such as canes while others never use canes. One of those organizations, Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. has a distinctive hopping movement to its steppin routines, and actually prefers the reference "Hops" rather than steps to describe their routines. Body patting ("Hambone", pattin Juba") can be but is not necessarily an element of the steppin routines of each of "Divine Nine" members of the NPHC.
*Elizabeth Fine notes that before the 1920s, Howard University's mascot was the bulldog, and that "the Omegas unofficially adopted the dog as their mascot" [although she doesn't cite a year for that unofficial action.
**I think that the term "Greek singing events" referred to White fraternity and sorority "sings". Although it is rarely done, some credit should be given to White Greek organizations [although those organization's didn't accept Black members] for serving as an organizational model for Black Greek lettered organizations [BFLO). A study of the older songs that are associated with certain BGLO - particularly sweetheart songs and songs declaring loyalty and brotherhood- clearly show that those songs and far fewer chants were modeled after White Greek lettered organizations
My recollection of "Greek sings" at the almost all White college that I attended (from 1965-1969) was that Greek organizations stood stiffly on the quad [quadrangle/in thee courtyard] and took turns singing slow songs about their love for their organization. I can understand why Black folks took that tradition and changed it to better fit our aesthetics by combining singing and chanting with rhythmic group syncopated, percussive movement.
***I believe that the name "Kujaliwa Hukumu" suggest a person [probably male] who was a member of a Black cultural nationalist organization. I say that because the name "Kujaliwa" seems to me to be an Americanized form of the Swahilii word "Kujichakuliwa" and the name "Hukumu" may be an Americanized form of the Swahili word "Kuumba". Most persons associated with Black cultural nationalist organizations, and/or persons who accepted the principles and values of those organizations were antagonistic toward fraternities and sororities because they considered those organizations to be divisive and frivilous.
STROLLS/ PARTY WALKS
Since at least the 1990s among historically Black Greek lettered organizations (BGLO), the performance art of strolls (party walks) has been added to most step routines, particularly at the end of those routines. "Strolls" (party walks) are also done independent of any stepping.
Given the information about the early days of Black Greek lettered organizations' "marching in line" while singing and chanting, strolls could be considered a BGLO that is actually older than stepping. However, perhaps it may be closer to say that "strolls" as they are performed now [since the early 2000s) are a reintroduction of the very old school BGLO custom of "marching in line", but with some changes. Nowadays, there's little chanting or singing associated with strolls. Instead, strolls are performed to to recorded music [usually Hip-Hop or moderately tempo R&B). Two or more members of the group strut or dance in coordinated manner in a circle but [I think mostly or always] clockwise. While steppin is almost always a competitive performance - fraternities against fraternities, and sororities against sororities- "strolls" can be either competitive within those gender groupings, or non-competitive.
SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF CATEGORIES OF BLACK FRATERNITY & SORORITY CHANTS
Historically Black Greek lettered fraternity & sorority chants are composed in two lined rhyming verses. These verses are usually chanted or sung in unison but may also be in call & response style. The lyrics of the chants are usually adapted from other song genres such as Spirituals, R&B, and other popular music. There are at least three types of fraternity & sorority chants & songs. In the first category are chants/songs that praise & profess their love for a specific organization, provide information about that organization's history, and/or extol the public persona of that organization's members.
The second category of fraternity & sorority chants is "pledging" chants/songs, These chants/songs express the desire for membership in & the commitment to a specific organization that persons striving for membership in that organization have.
The third category of fraternity & sorority chants & songs are those in which a particular fraternity compares itself favorably with other fraternities and/or insults (disses) other fraternities or a specific fraternity, or a sorority does the same toward other sororities or a specific sorority. This category also includes chants/song is one in which a fraternity praises a sorority with which it has informal or formal ties and vice versa.
Traditionally, persons who aren't associated with a specific fraternity or sorority are prohibited against doing that organization's stepping routines or performing songs and chants that are associated with that specififc organization. That prohibition is still in place today.
UPDATE: May 24, 2013
From watching numerous YouTube videos, it appears to me that the performance art of steppin has changed since the step shows that I attended in the 1980s and 1990s. I'm not sure why I'm surprised at this as it would be more suprising if a performance art didn't change in 30 something years.
Here are the changes that I've noticed:
Many step routines that are held indoors appear to begin with a brief video. The video may serve as an introduction to the theme of that step routine, and/or may introduce the step team, and/or may share some information about the Greek lettered organization.
More step teams include an introductory skit whose theme may continue throughout their performance. A small amount of props such as hats, stolls, or chairs, or mirrors (real or otherwise) are used in these skits.
There appears to be much less chanting and much more steppin to recorded music (usually R&B/Hip-Hop)
There appears to be much more dancing (popular R&B/Hip Hop dances) being done as part of the step show. Step show routines also appear to usually end now with "strolls" to R&B/Hip-Hop music,
One movement that I've observed in nearly all step show routines that I don't recall from the 1990s or before that decase is that a some point in the step show members of the step team lift one of their legs, bend it, and have to hold it in that position for minute or so. Another common feature is for each member of the step team to stand with one leg lifted and linked to the person to their right. There also appears to be an increase in cheerleader type stunts such as one of more step team member being lifted oh the shoulders of other members, and one or more members "flying" as is characteristics of some cheerleader squads.
Many step routines appear to include movements that are borrowed from other cultural indices such as the Matrix winding movement, and the freeze movement in which one leg bent at the knee is held up for a short period of time. Both of these movements are very popular.
This is a brief list of my observations about the changes in steppin as performed by Black Greek lettered organizations since the 1980s & 1990s. I'm interested in your thoughts about this subject. Comments can be sent to cocojams17@yahoo. com. Thanks!
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT STROLLING
"Strolling" is a related movement activity that is done by members of respective fraternities and sororities. My sense is that "strolling" originated from African American fraternities & sororities in the 1980s. "Strolling" has become a very popular performance activity for those groups, rivaling and I think even surpassing the popularity of steppin. Strolling is done informally a parties, picnics, and other fraternal or non-fraternal events. Increasingly sttrolling has also become a competitive event in & of itself.
This page is not meant to be a comprehensive listing of stepping & stroll videos. Nor does this page purport to showcase the best or latest stepping and stroll videos.
All videos that are showcased on this page are presented for their sociological, folkloric, historical, aesthetic, and entertainment value.
For the historical record, I've chosen not to to change the videos that I've re-posted on this page. However, other videos of Black Greek lettered fraternities or sororities are showcased on my cultural blog http://pancocojams.blogspot.com
All of the videos on this page are from http://www.youtube.com/
Please note that links to YouTube videos or to other online resources may not remain viable. Also, please be aware that comments posted on YouTube viewer comments threads may not be suitable for children or otherwise may not meet the standards of Cocojams.com
HOW VIDEOS ARE PRESENTED
Videos are posted in alphabetical order under the heading of the name of the step group.
Most of these videos are presented with little or no comment or analysis. Hyperlinks may be provided for additional video examples, information, and/or comments, Cocojams.com is not responsible for the content or availability of websites other than Cocojams pages and its sister website http://www.jambalayah.com
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND THANKS
Thanks to all those who uploaded videos that are featured on this page.
Please send links to stepping & stroll videos for possible posting on this page. Thanks!
Your email address is never posted or shared.
Or, if you are on facebook, visit me at cocojams jambalayah, and befriend me or send me a private message.
Thanks to all those who send in links to videos & information!
FRATERNITY/SORORITY AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS' STEP & STROLL VIDEOS
[These examples are posted in alphabetical order.]
Alpha Kappa Alpha, 2010 Sprite Stepoff 2 of 5
Posted by krazylikethatglue
February 21, 2010
"(part 2 of 5) The Sprite Stepoff 2010 was held at the Atlanta Civic Center in Atlanta Ga..and it was CRAAAAAZY! These AKAs represent Indiana University (Tau Chapter) "
Editor: This step team went on to be awarded the 2nd prize in the National Sprite Step-Off competition. A predominately White step team, Zeta Tau Alpha, was declared the 1st place winners. There was A LOT of uproar about this decision. A few days after that competition, Coca Cola (owners of Sprite) announced that there had been a voting discrepancy, and awarded a tie 1st place win to Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority and to Zeta Tau Alpha. Both sororities received a $100.000 scholarship prize.
A video of the Zeta Tau Alpha routine for the national Sprite Step Off is posted below. Also for those who may be interested in reading an online article and comments.(including two comments that I posted) about the controversial Sprite Step-off event, click this link http://www.racialicious.com/2010/03/05/white-sorority-wins-major-step-co...
Also click http://couldntkeepit.wordpress.com/2010/03/02/a-serious-matter/ for commentary about this Sprite Step Off™ competition & decision.
Alpha Kappa Alpha 1st Place Winners for Chicago Sprite Step Off
Editor: This is a video of the routine that theTau chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha. Inc did at their regional competition. Because the video of the national routine available isn't that good, I'm including a video below of that regional performance.
Alpha Kappa Alpha Stroll
Posted by Latisha1903
April 19, 2006
"Zeta Gamma Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha, Inc Prairie View A&M University"
Alpha Phi Alpha Steps
Posted by lambda6
November 02, 2006
"DI Step Show"
Alpha Phi Alpha (Central State University)
Posted by gowherehiphop
January 30, 2010
"1st Place Winners for Chicago Sprite Step Off"
Alpha Phi Alpha Stroll
Posted by ironLion26
September 01, 2009
"2009 Divine 9 Cookout Hartford CT Stroll Comp Champs"
Battle of Troy (mulitple Latino Greek Organizations)
Posted by ejia24
November 13, 2007
Black Ice Step Team
Posted by infamousash22
May 07, 2007
"Black Ice Step Team at CNR Strawberry Festival 2007"
Community Co-Ed Step Team
Posted by clonebob
April 08, 2006
The Tau Eta Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc @ Brenau University's Winter Weekend Greek Sing
Posted by BaDST07
February 08, 2008
"I love my DST!!!"
Delta Sigma Theta, Inc. (Step Show Meharry Deltas 2006)
Posted by Gkbmoney
May 03, 2006
"Deltas of Meharry Steppin at Family and Friends Weekend 4/2006. This is only the 1st half of their performance. "
NC A&T SU DELTA SIGMA THETA SWAG SURF STROLL
Posted by PookieMMouse
May 18, 2009
"The Devastating Divas of the Alpha Mu Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc."
The Greek Anthem Video "Get Ya Stroll On" [Multple Black Greek Lettered Fraternities & Sororities]
Posted by SUEDENUPE
September 20, 2006
"This video is dedicated to all my fellow Greeks. Big shout out to my brothers of Kappa Alpha Psi !!!Yooo Baby Yooo Baby Yooo!!!
Iota Phi Theta Step Off 2010
Uploaded by DreamRunnersMedia on Sep 17, 2010
MTSU Chapter of Iota Phi Theta at MTSU Step Off
Iota Phi Theta, Inc, (Stepping Owt Founder's Day Show)
Posted by DiegoAngarita85
September 22, 2008
"Founder's Day Show Beta Beta Chapter UMASS Amherst Summer 08 line"
Kappa Alpha Psi (Fall 04 GSU)
Posted by fact12
September 11, 2007
Kappa Theta chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi at AKA Stroll Off
Posted by icecoldE
May 15, 2007
Kappa Kappa Psi - Prarie View - Step Show
April 21, 2008
"The brothers of KKY did a stepped for us at the SWD convetion talent show 2008. Great Job Brothers!!!! "
Grambling State Kappa Kappa Psi
Posted by Superfoot
April 20, 2008
"Gramblings State's band fraternity performs at University of Arkansas Pine Bluff's band fraternity talent show in February of 1992"
Lambda Sigma Upsilon
Posted by ElAtrev1doLSU
September 25, 2006
"Lambda Sigma Upsilon's winning stroll against Alpha Phi Alpha at the 2006 LatinosStep competition at Hunter College "
MALIK Fraternity Inc. (JEEM Kingdom)
Posted by milkman1643
October 21, 2007
Editor: MALIK (Manhood Achievement Leadership Integrity and Knowledge)is a Latino/African American fraternity founded in 1977, ]
information source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tuseloMcBzo&feature=related
"What is Malik"?
MALIK Strolling at Ramapo College
Posted by milkman1643
December 04, 2006
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc.
December 01, 2007
"Bruhz from Nu Sigma, Sigma, Phi Zeta, and Upsilon Iota Iota in the Zeta Phi beta step show. This is may be the greatest six man show ever. They receive all 5 out of 5. But one frat gave them ones. Guess which frat was it? "
Omega Psi Phi Stroll
Posted by Latisha1903
April 19, 2006
"Rho Theta Chapter of Omega Psi Phi Inc. Prairie View A&M University"
Phi Beta Sigma NYC Step Team on Stomp
Posted by vonboogen
January 10, 2009
"Phi Beta Sigma NYC Step Team on [the television show] Stomp
Phi Beta Sigma Killing It at The NPHC Stroll-Off (Epsilon Iota Chapter)
Posted by fdhobson
April 25, 2009
"Even though we lost the Lil'500 Stepshow Competition By 7 POINTS... My frat still showed up and KILLED the Stroll-Off Competition"
Prince Hall Shriners
Persian Temple No. 46 - 2010 Potentate Ball - Intro (Camel Walk)
Uploaded by smokeyjoesii on Dec 19, 2010
Persian Temple No.46 -2010 Potentate Ball -- Intro --Robert Apple leading the Nobles!
I'm struck by how much this Shriners' call & response chant is similar to that a Black Greek lettered fraternity. The Prince Hall Shriners were founded in 1893. I can't make out what the leader says in this video, but the response is "46".
Compare that to Black Greek Lettered organizations (BGLO) signature chants based on their founding date. For instance, members of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. have a call & response chant in which the leader of the chanters calls "1 9" and the other chanters respond "0 6" - 1906 being the date that that fraternity was founded.
The Shriners' vertical stroll which turns into a circular movement also reminds me of Black Greek lettered organizations (BGLO) strolls (party walks). If the Shriners' performed this Camel Walk movement first, I should say that the fraternity & sorority strolls remind me of the Shriners' performances of riding.
Click http://www.aeaonms.org/about.htm for information about the Shriners. Also, click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2012/09/videos-of-camel-walk-dance.html for several more videos of the Camel Walk dance, including the Shriners doing their signature Camel Walk line stroll.
SIGMA GAMMA RHO
Posted by aarongmiller
April 06, 2009, "University of Michigan NPHC Step Show: Daize of Kaos
April 3, 2009"
Sigma Gamma Rho SGRho @Atlanta Greek Picnic 2008 Stroll Off
Posted by BlackGreekParaCom
June 23, 2008
"Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. June 21, 2008 - Morris Brown
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc.
June 21, 2008 - Morris Brown"
Steppin' -folkstream.net documentary
Posted by folkstreamer
August 02, 2007
"The "Step Show" -- an exciting dance style popular today among black fraternities and sororities. In addition to many rousing, crowd-pleasing performances, the program examines the cultural roots of steppin' in African dancing, military marching and hip-hop music, and discusses its contemporary social significance on college campuses"
Soul Steps LLC, Performance
soulsteps1Uploaded on Jul 18, 2008
Show in New York City (Times Square)
Soul Steps LLC is a non-faternity/sorority group. Click http://www.soulsteps.com/ for information about this group.
Stomp Television Show
Stomp 1996 Introductions
dawg9,Uploaded on Apr 17, 2011
Stomp 1996 Intro Steps
This video showcases step performances of eight Black Greek lettered fraternities & sororities.
In the order of their appearance, the Black Greek lettered organizations that performed on that show were: Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc,, Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc, Sigma Gamma Rho, Sorority Inc, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc, Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc, Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc, and Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.
UAB Gospel Choir Step Team
Posted by kevinpaulturner
January 05, 2008
"UAB Gospel Choir Step Team performs at live recording @ the Alys Stephens Performing Arts Center on the campus of the Univ of Alabama-Birmingham. Kevin Turner, Director."
United States Army Elite Step Team @ Essence Festival (New Orleans, LA)
Posted by phillykappa99
June 08, 2009
United States Army Elite Step Team @ Morehouse Homecoming
Posted by JayrW24
October 25, 2007
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc
Every beat of my heart - Pi Mu Chapter Zeta Phi Beta
Uploaded by jmarce1971 on Dec 1, 2010
Ladies of Zeta Phi Beta singing
Zeta Phi Beta, Inc.
Posted by vandalism2k5
October 04, 2006
"Zeta meet the greeks"
Zeta Phi Beta @ Atlanta, Georgia Greek Picnic 2008 Stroll-Off
June 22, 2008
"Metro ATL Zeta Phi Beta strolls "
Zeta Tau Alpha @ Sprite Step- Offf, 2010
Posted by trillpromo
February 22, 2010
"WINNERS of the SPRITE Step Off Dance Competition in Atlanta"
"The Zeta Tau Alpha girls from the University of Arkansas took home the $100k scholarship from SPRITE for winning the Step Off Dance Competition Finale in Atlanta."
Editor: There was A LOT of uproar about this decision. A few days after that competition, Coca Cola (owners of Sprite )announced that there had been a voting discrepancy, and awarded a tie 1st place win to Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority and to Zeta Tau Alpha. Both sororities received a $100.000 scholarship prize. The video for Alpha Kappa Alpha's performance in this competition is posted above.
A RELATED VIDEO FROM A TELEVISION SHOW
Different World TV Show Step Show Clip
spectra08 | November 14, 2008
At a Hillman College Step Show, the ladies of Gilbert Hall strut their stuff as the Libby Hall girls look on in envy.
" Different World is an American television sitcom which aired for six seasons on NBC (from September 24, 1987 – July 9, 1993). It was a spin-off series from The Cosby Show originally centered on Denise Huxtable (Lisa Bonet) and the life of students at Hillman College, a fictional historically black college in the state of Virginia. Later seasons of the show focused on other characters, including mathematics whiz Dwayne Wayne (Kadeem Hardison) and Whitley Gilbert (Jasmine Guy). In reality, Spelman College and Clark Atlanta University were the campuses primarily seen during the show. The series frequently depicted members of the major historically African American fraternities and sororities (along with the fictional Kappa Lambda Nu fraternity and Alpha Delta Rho sorority)."
Click http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yvj00iZW_bw&feature=related A Different World -Coed Step Team Part 1 and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DdbL1-pwDbU&feature=related A Different World - Coed Step Team Part 2 , Both of these videos feature actress Jada Pinkett.
Also click http://www.jambalayah.com/node/867 to view this video and read an edited version of its YouTube viewer comment thread.
Thanks for visiting this page!
Also, click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/ to visit my blog.
Pancocojams showcases the music, dances, and customs of African Americans and of other people of Black descent throughout the world.
Share! Learn! Enjoy!
Cocojams - Share! Learn! Enjoy! - firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2001-2011 Azizi Powell; All Rights Reserved